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Support for gRPC, Java SE 15, and Custom JNDI for Enterpise Beans (EJBs) in Open Liberty

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Jakub Pomykala on Nov 20, 2020

In Open Liberty we now support gRPC 1.0 and gRPC Client 1.0 features. gRPC is a "high-performance, open source universal RPC framework." We’ve also added support for custom JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface) for Enterprise Beans (EJBs). This allows you to use custom JDNI names for looking up and/or injecting enterprise beans. Another major addition for this release is support for running Open Liberty on Java SE 15, which is currently the latest version of Java SE.

In Open Liberty

View the list of fixed bugs in

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Or for Gradle:

dependencies {
    libertyRuntime group: 'io.openliberty', name: 'openliberty-runtime', version: '[,)'

Or if you’re using Docker:

FROM open-liberty

Or take a look at our Downloads page.

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Provide and consume gRPC services from your web applications (gRPC Service 1.0 and gRPC Client 1.0)

gRPC is a high-performance, open source universal RPC framework. gRPC support on Liberty allows developers to both provide and consume gRPC services from your web applications. The introduction of gRPC support in Open Liberty means you can now take advantage of the benefits of gRPC more easily than before. Those benefits include great performance, simple service definitions via Protocol Buffers, cross-platform and language support, and wide industry adoption.

These two features were previously only available in beta are now generally available:

  • grpc-1.0, which enables gRPC services, and

  • grpcClient-1.0, which enables the use of a gRPC client for outbound calls.

gRPC Service

The grpc-1.0 feature works by scanning web apps for gRPC service implementations, through implementors of io.grpc.BindableService. The web app must include the protocol buffer compiler-generated code for the services it intends to provide, and additionally the service class must provide a no-argument constructor. The web app does not need to include any core gRPC libraries; those are provided by the Liberty runtime. Once a gRPC service is scanned and started, it becomes accessible to remote gRPC clients on the configured HTTP ports.

gRPC Client

The grpcClient-1.0 feature provides applications with access to a Netty gRPC client, as well as the related libraries. A web app must provide a client implementation and stubs, and can make outbound calls with a io.grpc.ManagedChannel without needing to provide the supporting client libraries.

Try out gRPC

You can now try gRPC by either following the instructions in this GitHub repository’s README or following this basic Hello World service (add the grpc-1.0 feature to your server.xml):



import io.grpc.examples.helloworld.GreeterGrpc;
import io.grpc.examples.helloworld.HelloReply;
import io.grpc.examples.helloworld.HelloRequest;
import io.grpc.stub.StreamObserver;

public class HelloWorldService extends GreeterGrpc.GreeterImplBase {

    public HelloWorldService(){}

    public void sayHello(HelloRequest req, StreamObserver<HelloReply> responseObserver) {
        HelloReply reply = HelloReply.newBuilder().setMessage("Hello " + req.getName()).build();

For this example, the application must provide the helloworld protobuf definition along with the protobuf compiler output. No additional libraries need to be provided with the application, and once it’s started the helloworld greeter service will be accessible on the server’s HTTP endpoints.

For a client example, a basic Servlet using gRPC can be defined using the grpcClient-1.0 feature with:


import io.grpc.examples.helloworld.GreeterGrpc;
import io.grpc.examples.helloworld.HelloReply;
import io.grpc.examples.helloworld.HelloRequest;

import io.grpc.ManagedChannel;
import io.grpc.ManagedChannelBuilder;
@WebServlet(name = "grpcClient", urlPatterns = { "/grpcClient" }, loadOnStartup = 1)
public class GrpcClientServlet extends HttpServlet {

        ManagedChannel channel;
        private GreeterGrpc.GreeterBlockingStub greetingService;

        private void startService(String address, int port)
            channel = ManagedChannelBuilder.forAddress(address , port).usePlaintext().build();
            greetingService = GreeterGrpc.newBlockingStub(channel);

        private void stopService()

        protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest reqest, HttpServletResponse response)
            throws ServletException, IOException

            // set user, address, port params

        protected void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
            throws ServletException, IOException

        // grab user, address, port params
        startService(address, port);
        HelloRequest person = HelloRequest.newBuilder().setName(user).build();
        HelloReply greeting = greetingService.sayHello(person);

        // send the greeting in a response

As with the service example, the application must provide the helloworld protobuf definition along with the protobuf compiler output. All required gRPC client libraries are provided by the grpcClient-1.0 feature.

Support for Custom JNDI Names for Enterprise Beans (Jakarta Enterprise Beans 1.x, 2.x, 3.x)

Support for Custom JNDI Names for Enterprise Beans (EJBs) is an enhancement to all existing enterprise beans features that allows an application to configure and use custom JDNI names for looking up and/or injecting enterprise beans, or use legacy default JNDI names instead of the specification defined JNDI names.

Prior to this enhancement, Liberty only supported looking up enterprise beans using the specification defined JNDI names : java:global/<app>/<module>/<bean>!<interface> & variations for java:app and java:module. With this enhancement, and without any additional configuration, legacy default JNDI names are now available for use by applications to lookup and/or inject enterprise beans. Also, rather than using the defaults, a custom name for each EJB may be specified in the ibm-ejb-jar-bnd.xml file (or ibm-ejb-jar-bnd.xmi file for EJB 2.x and 1.x modules). These new JNDI name options are available in addition to the existing specification required names.

For EJB 3.x modules, the following defaults will be available if a custom name is not provided:

Short form local interfaces and homes ejblocal:<package.qualified.interface>
Short form remote interfaces and homes <package.qualified.interface>
Long form local interfaces and homes ejblocal:<component-id>#<package.qualified.interface>
Long form remote interfaces and homes ejb/<component-id>#<package.qualified.interface>

The component-id defaults to <application-name>/<module-jar-name>/<ejb-name>

Easier Migration for Enterprise Bean Applications

Custom JNDI name support for enterprise beans provides an easier migration path for applications from other platforms (including WebSphere traditional).

Prior to Java EE 6, the Enterprise Beans specification did not prescribe the JNDI names required for enterprise beans, so every platform provided platform specific default names and custom binding file formats. Since Liberty only supported the specification defined JNDI names, migrating applications from other platforms often requires code changes to modify the platform specific JNDI names to the newer specification defined names. Now, migration from other platforms is simplified because applications may be migrated without changing code, but instead migrating the other platform specific binding files to the new Liberty platform specific binding file format. In some cases, use of the new legacy default names may also allow applications to migrate to liberty without specifying custom JNDI names in a binding file.

Application Configuration details

Full details about the legacy default bindings provided, as well as the syntax for declaring custom JNDI names in the ibm-ejb-jar-bnd.xml file, including examples, may be found in this IBM Knowledge Center article.

Custom bindings may be configured for an application in the following three locations.

Specify Custom bindings in ibm-ejb-jar-bnd.xml for EJB 3.x

Following are examples of how to configure custom bindings for EJB 3.x beans in an EJB JAR module or WAR module in ibm-ejb-jar-bnd.xml

Specify a binding per interface:

   <session name="NoInterceptorBasicStateless">
      <interface class="com.ejbs.InventoryService" binding-name="ejb/Inventory"/>

Specify a component id (a prefix for default long form bindings)

   <session name="AccountServiceBean" component-id="Dept549/AccountProcessor"/>

Simple binding name (one name used for both local and remote)

   <session name="AccountServiceBean" simple-binding-name="ejb/AccountService"/>

Local and Remote home specific binding names

   <session name="AccountServiceBean" local-home-binding-name="ejblocal:AccountService"/>
   <session name="AccountServiceBean" remote-home-binding-name="ejb/services/AccountService"/>

Specify Custom bindings in server.xml

Following is an example of how to configure custom bindings for EJB 3.x beans in an EJB JAR module or WAR module in server.xml in the <application> or <ejbApplication> elements:

   <ejbApplication location="EJBTest.jar">
         <session name="InventoryServiceBean">
            <interface class="com.ejbs.InventoryService" binding-name="ejb/Inventory"/>

Specify Custom bindings in ibm-ejb-jar-bnd.xmi for EJB 1.x/2.x

Following is an example of how to configure custom bindings for EJB 1.x or 2.x beans in an EJB JAR module in ibm-ejb-jar-bnd.xmi

EJB 1.x and 2.x provide a single JNDI name that applies to both the remote and local home:

   <ejbBindings xmi:id="BeanBinding_8" jndiName="suite/r6x/base/misc/poollimits/SLCMTTxTimeoutHome">
      <enterpriseBean xmi:type="ejb:Session" href="META-INF/ejb-jar.xml#SLCMTTxTimeout"/>

For a bean with both a remote and local home, the above will provide the following custom bindings:

   Remote Home : suite/r6x/base/misc/poollimits/SLCMTTxTimeoutHome
   Local Home  : local:suite/r6x/base/misc/poollimits/SLCMTTxTimeoutHome

Feature configuration details

Support for custom and legacy default JNDI names is enabled by default for all Enterprise Bean (EJB) features. This support will not interfere with the existing specification defined java: support. However, it is possible to completely disable the new support with the following setting in server.xml:

    <ejbContainer bindToServerRoot="false"/>

It is also possible to disable just the legacy short form default JNDI name support (i.e. the bean is bound using the interface name) with the following setting in server.xml:

   <ejbContainer disableShortDefaultBindings="true"/>

Since the new support for custom JNDI names and legacy defaults provide alternative JNDI names, it is now possible to disable the EJB specification required JNDI names. This is done in server.xml as follows:

   <ejbContainer bindToJavaGlobal="false"/>

Finally, the following new configuration attribute on the <ejbContainer> element in open-liberty enables the failing application start when multiple beans are bound to the same JNDI name:

    <ejbContainer customBindingsOnError="FAIL"/>

Support for Java SE 15

Any official Java SE 15 release from AdoptOpenJDK, Oracle, or other OpenJDK vendors will work with Open Liberty. Although Java SE 15 is currently the latest available version, it is not a long-term supported release, with standard support scheduled to end in March 2021.

Keep in mind, Eclipse OpenJ9 typically offers faster startup times than Hotspot.

The primary features added in this release include:

  • JEP 379 Shenandoah: A Low-Pause-Time Garbage Collector

  • JEP 377 ZGC: A Scalable Low-Latency Garbage Collector

  • JEP 378 Text Blocks

  • JEP 384 Records (Second Preview)

  • JEP 360 Sealed Classes (Preview)

For more information on downloading a version of Java 15, see, or

For working with the server.env file in Open Liberty, see the Configuration Files section of the Open Liberty Server Configuration Overview documentation.

For more information on new features available in Java 15, see OpenJDK.

Significant bugs fixed in this release

We’ve spent some time fixing bugs. The following sections describe just some of the issues resolved in this release. If you’re interested, here’s the full list of bugs fixed in

CWWKE0702E: Could not resolve module: [265]
Bundle was not resolved because of a uses constraint violation.

The error handling of this invalid configuration has been improved to give an error message of:

CWWKF0033E: The singleton features and cannot be loaded at the same time. The configured features jsonpContainer-1.1 and jsonp-1.0 include one or more features that cause the conflict. Your configuration is not supported; update server.xml to remove incompatible features.

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